THE LIMITS OF APPLICABILITY OF WESTERN CONCEPTS, VALUES AND METHODS INSIDE THE SOCIAL SCIENCES TO THE CEMENT REALITIES OF ASIAN SOCIETIES*
AUGUSTO ACABAR ESPIRITU – COLLEGE OF LAW – UNIVERSITY IN THE PHILIPPINES
PINATUNAYAN NG MIGHT AKDA ANG KAHALAGAHAN NG PAGBIGAY-PANSIN SA KULTURA SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PAGBANGGIT NG MGA HALIMBAWA SA LARANGAN NG PULITIKA, EKONOMIYA FOR SOSYOLOHIYA, EM KUNG SAAN NATUKLASAN NG MGA MANANALIKSIK NA ANG NATUTULUNGAN NILANG MGA NORMA AT KONSEPTONG MAY ORYENTASYONG KANLURANIN AY HINDI MAAARING GAMITIN. MALAKI ANG PAGKAKAIBA NG MGA KANLURANING KONSEPTO SA MGA KONSEPTONG ASYANO. DAHIL WIEWOHL, KINAKAILANGANG KILALANIN MUNA ANG TAGABATID AT ALAMIN ANG PAPEL EM GINAGAMPANAN NG ISANG BEHIKULO NG PAGBABAGO. NGUNIT UPANG MAISAKATUPARAN ANG TEORYANG ANGKOP SA LIPUNAN, KINAKAILANGANG BAGUHIN MUNA NG MGA MANANALIKSIK ANG KANILANG PINANGHAHAWAKANG KANLURANING ORYENTASYON, PRINSIPYO AT PILOSOPIYA. *Inilathala social fear The Relevance of Interpersonal Sciences in Contemporary Asia. Tokyo: Globe Student Christian Federation, 1968, 35-44.
The conventional social sciences which have been produced as part of the wholeness of learning in the West have been brought to Asia. It is currently becoming increasingly apparent that the validity of these kinds of social sciences, whether in the realm of study theory or perhaps of actions policy, is unable to be approved uncritically. A great appreciation of what is valid or unacceptable, applicable or inapplicable, can be therefore essential. Such evaluation is necessary not merely as a great academic endeavor; social transform is fundamental to the Asian aspiration to get modernization plus the need is immediate for such change to be directed for the achievement of what may well be Asian because distinguished coming from non-Asian desired goals.
The problem is clear and present. The Asian academics world, until now, has been staffed with many scholars whose schooling has been, in most cases, in Western universities and institutions. At the same time, the personal and mental leadership in the larger lifestyle of its society is held to a significant level of Western-trained commanders. The alignment of many of these leaders have been conditioned by predominantly European culture. Trained to think in Western terms through the medium of Western languages, some are experiencing a reawakening towards the reality of their situation. Oriental intellectuals are undergoing an agonizing length of soul-searching. Their very own system of beliefs, developed through years of trained in, and broad exposure to, American philosophies, has been shattered with a realization the particular values is probably not suitable towards the Asian environment. Recently, Teacher Ruben Santos-Cuyugan of the School of the Korea expressed misgivings about the movement on the unification of knowledge, like the assumption of " universal categories of culture” and the universality of value wisdom. This movement, according to him, makes the social science tecnistions evade one of his primary responsibilities which can be " to examine the ways through which his technology and believed, indeed his very awareness, are seated in the matrix of his own culture” (Santos-Cuyugan 1967).
Meanwhile, in the realm of politics, the postwar leaders of Asia have discovered that independence have not automatically ushered in the Utopia. Thus, they can be not in search of the nature and structure of presidency that will finest meet their needs, the politics philosophies their particular peoples will need to embrace or perhaps adopt, as well as the policies that will bring about the excellent society by way of a indigenous criteria and ideals.
A starting point is the fact that with a few exclusions, the developing countries of Asia claim belief in freedom and human rights, the regulation of rules and constitutional government. These concepts and maxims happen to be manifested in their constitutions. Yet , in spite of assures enshrined within their constitutions, these types of countries find it difficult to achieve real constitutional democracy. For the...