Journal of Bionic Executive 7 Suppl. (2010) S150–S157
A Joining Analysis of the Biomechanical Functions of Individual Foot Complex during Locomotion Zhihui Qian1, Lei Ren2, Luquan Ren1
1 . Key Laboratory of Bionic Architectural, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, P. L. China 2 . School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Municipal Engineering, School of Stansted, Manchester M60 1QD, UK
This kind of study signifies a functional research of the individual foot complex based on in-vivo gait measurements, finite element (FE) building and neurological coupling theory, with the objective of achieving a thorough understanding of the impact attenuation and energy ingestion functions of the human ft . complex. A simplified back heel pad FE model comprising reticular fibers structure and fat skin cells was made based on the foot pad Magnetic Reverberation (MR) photos. The version was after that used to check out the feet pad actions under effect during locomotion. Three-dimensional (3D) gait way of measuring and a 3D CONFIANZA foot unit comprising 30 bones, 85 ligaments plus the plantar gentle tissues were used to look into the foot arch and plantar fascia deformations in mid-stance phase. The heel pad simulation results show that the pad version with body fat cells (coupling model) provides much stronger potential in impact attenuation and energy storage than the model without excess fat cells (structure model). Furthermore, the CONVICCION simulation produced the deformations of the feet arch structure and the plantar fascia extension noticed in the running measurements, which will reinforces the postulation that the foot arch structure also plays an important role in energy compression during locomotion. Finally, the coupling system of the man foot functions in influence attenuation and energy absorption was proposed. Keywords: biomechancis, human feet, locomotion, limited element version, bionic engineering, biological coupling Copyright © 2010, Jilin University. Published by Elsevier Limited and Science Press. All privileges reserved. doi: 10. 1016/S1672-6529(09)60229-8
Human feet is a very complicated structure comprising numerous bone tissues, muscles, fidelite, synovial important joints and smooth tissues[1–3]. As the sole body part in contact with the earth during locomotion, human ft . plays essential role in attenuating earth impact, saving mechanical energy and retaining body stableness. At back heel strike, the foot can be subject to large impact push, which can accomplish as high as the full body weight due to the collision between foot part and the ground. It is assumed that the stress energy assimilated by the foot structure inside the early and middle stances may be came back in the late posture phase. During late stance, the feet complex must work efficiently to push the low limb in swing stage of walking to achieve an entire step[4, 5]. Over the past decades, numerous in-vivo and in-vitro trial and error studies have been completely conducted Matching author: Luquan Ren Email: [email protected] edu. cn
to investigate the ft . biomechanical function[6–9]. It has been found the fatty rearfoot pad may well have a fantastic contribution in shock attenuation, energy consumption and prevention of excessive neighborhood stress[10–14]. The stress-strain constitutive romantic relationship and the deformation of rearfoot pad during different actions have also been researched[15, 16]. It has been advised that the foot arch, ligaments, bones and muscles might also contribute to the energy saving mechanism in the human ft . complex during locomotion[7, 17, 18]. However , it seems that there have been very few studies to review the practical mechanism with the heel cushion and feet arch structures during human being locomotion. A fantastic understanding of the primary mechanism of human feet function would further feet biomechanics study and also help its applications in a broad range of areas, such as scientific diagnosis, rehabilitation product design and humanoid robot's creation.
Qian ou al.: A Coupling Analysis of...
References:   Hicks T H. The mechanics in the foot I actually. The joints. Record of Anatomy, 1953, 87, 345–357. Hicks J H. The technicians of the ft . II. The plantar aponeurosis and the posture. Journal of Anatomy, 1954, 88, 25–30.  Ren L, Howard D, Ren L Queen, Nester C J, Tian L Meters. A phase-dependant hypothesis pertaining to locomotor capabilities of individual foot complicated. Journal of Bionic Anatomist, 2008, your five, 175–180.  Carrier Deb R, Heglund N C, Earls E D. Changing gearing during locomotion in the human musculoskeletal system. Technology, 1994, 265, 651–653.  Erdemir A, Piazza H J. Rotational foot placement specifies the lever adjustable rate mortgage of surface reaction pressure during the push-off phase of walking avertissement. Gait and Posture, 2002, 15, 212–219.  Dickinson J A, Cook S i9000 D, Leinhardt T Meters. The way of measuring of shock waves pursuing heel hit while jogging. Journal of Biomechanics, 85, 18, 415–422.  Ker R Farreneheit, Bennett M B, Bibby S L, Kester R C, Alexander R Meters. The springtime in the arch of the man foot. Nature, 1987, 325, 147–149.  Scott H H, Winter months D A. Biomechanical model of the human foot: Kinematics and kinetics during the stance stage of strolling. Journal of Biomechanics, 1993, 26, 1091–1104.  Ren L, Howard D, Ren L Queen, Nester C J, Tian L M. A generic analytical ft . rollover model for guessing translational ankle joint kinematics in gait simulation studies. Journal of
Qian et approach.: A Joining Analysis in the Biomechanical Features of Human being Foot Complicated during Locomotion Biomechanics, 2010, 4, 194–202.  Aerts P, Ker R Farreneheit, De Clercq D, Ilsley D W, Alexander R M. The mechanical homes of the individual heel mat: A paradoxon resolved. Diary of Function, 1998, twenty-eight, 1299–1308.  De Clercq D, Aerts P, Kunnen M. The mechanical qualities of the human being heel protect during ft . strike in running: A great in palpitante cineradiographic analyze. Journal of Biomechanics, year 1994, 27, 1213–1222.  Pain M To G, Challis J H. The function of the high heel pad and shank gentle tissue during impacts: An extra resolution from the paradox. Log of Function, 2001, 34, 327–333.  Robbins S i9000 E, Gouw G T, Hama A M. Running-related injury reduction through inborn impact-moderating habit. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 1989, 21, 130–139.  Ker R. The time-dependent mechanised properties of the human heel pad inside the context of locomotion. Log of Fresh Biology, 1996, 199, 1501–1508.  Miller-Young J E, Duncan NA, Baroud G. Material houses of the individual calcaneal fat pad in compression: Test and theory. Journal of Biomechanics, 2002, 35, 1523–1531.  Cavanagh P 3rd there�s r. Plantar gentle tissue density during surface contact in walking. Journal of Function, 1999, 32, 623–628.  Alexander 3rd there�s r M. Elastic energy shops in operating vertebrates. American Zoologist, 1984, 24, 85–94.  Alexander R M, Bennet-Clark They would C. Safe-keeping of stretchy strain energy in muscles and other cells. Nature, 1977, 265, 114–117.  Ren L Q, Liang Con H. Neurological couplings: Function, characteristics and implementation function. Science in China Series E: Technical Science, 2010, 53, 379–387.  Ren L Queen, Liang Sumado a H. Neurological couplings: Category
and characteristic rules. Science in China Series E: Scientific Science, 2009, 52, 2791–2800.  Barthlott W, Neinhuis C. Purity of the almost holy lotus or escape via contamination in biological surfaces. Planta, 1997, 202, 1–8.  Barthlott W, Neinhuis C, Steam D. The lotus-effect: Non-adhesive biological and biomimetic technological surfaces. Proceeding of the initial International Professional Conference BIONIK 2004, Hannover, Germany, 2004, 211–214.  Qian Z . H, Hong Y, Xu C Con, Ren T Q. A biological joining extension style and joining element identity. Journal of Bionic Architectural, 2009, six, 186–195.  Zhang Con, Zhou C H, Ren L Q. Biology coupling characteristics on soil-engaging pieces of mole crickets. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2008, 5, 164–171.  Rome T. Mechanical properties of the heel pad: Current theory and review of the literature. The Foot, 98, 8, 179–185.  Jahss M H, Kummer Farreneheit, Michelson L D. Inspections into the fat pads of the sole of the ft .: Heel pressure studies. Ft . & Rearfoot, 1992, 13, 227–232.  Chen Watts P, Tang F Big t, Ju C W. Pressure distribution of the foot during mid-stance to push-off in barefoot walking: A 3D finite aspect analysis. Medical Biomechanics, 2001, 16, 614–620.  Cheung J Capital t, Zhang Meters, Leung A K, Supporter Y W. Three-dimensional limited element research of the foot during standing a materials sensitivity study. Journal of Biomechanics, 2005, 38, 1045–1054.  Qian Z L, Ren D, Ren T Q, Boonpratatong A. A three-dimensional finite element musculoskeletal model of a persons foot intricate. The 6th World Our elected representatives of Biomechanics, Singapore, 2010, 297–300.